Septins recognize and entrap dividing bacterial cells for delivery to lysosomesSina Krokowski, Damián Lobato-Márquez, Arnaud Chastanet, Pedro Matos Pereira, Dimitrios Angelis, Dieter Galea, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Ricardo Henriques, Elias T Spiliotis, Rut Carballido-López, Serge Mostowy (see publication in Journal )
TMEM16F is a Ca2+ -gated ion channel that is required for Ca2+ -activated phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of many eukaryotic cells. TMEM16F is widely expressed and has roles in platelet activation during blood clotting, bone formation and T cell activation. By combining microscopy and patch clamp recording we demonstrate that activation of TMEM16F by Ca2+ ionophores in Jurkat T cells triggers large-scale surface membrane expansion in parallel with phospholipid scrambling. With continued ionophore application,TMEM16F-expressing cells then undergo extensive shedding of ectosomes. The T cell co-receptor PD-1 is selectively incorporated into ectosomes. This selectivity depends on its transmembrane sequence. Surprisingly, cells lacking TMEM16F not only fail to expand surface membrane in response to elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+, but instead undergo rapid massive endocytosis with PD-1 internalisation. These results establish a new role for TMEM16F as a regulator of Ca2+ activated membrane trafficking.